Share Your Ideas for Research

Background

Part of the mission of Intervoice is developing positive, hopeful messages that promote acceptance, tolerance and understanding of voice hearing experiences. One strategy to achieve this involves the generation of new knowledge and evidence. Unfortunately, however, much research presently being conducted maintains the idea that voices are in some way connected to illness or disease. We believe that this is because the questions posed are partly designed to come to this conclusion (for example, that voices “are a symptom of schizophrenia”).

In response to this, Intervoice has set up its own Research Committee. The Committee is comprised of a mixture of voice hearers, academic professionals and mental health workers. All its members are actively involved in international research into hearing voices and/or promoting more diverse understandings of the voice hearing experience.

Research guided by voice-hearers themselves

Our main aim is to generate knowledge that both supports the aims of Intervoice and influences society, the academic community and mental health practice. Crucially, however, our work will be informed by the needs of voice hearers themselves; issues which are relevant and valuable for them in their daily lives. We want voice hearers, as well as their friends, allies, and supporters, to respond to the query: what research questions are relevant to you?

For example, issues might include:

  • What is the effect of medication on voices?
  • How useful are self-help groups?
  • What are helpful ways for nurses and psychiatrists to respond to voice hearers?
  • What information is helpful for friends and family members?
  • What coping strategies are effective?

Once ideas and suggestions have been sent to us, the committee members will either put these questions onto their own research agendas, or encourage collaborators to address them (e.g., PhD students). In the long-term, we will also set up a database of questions that are available to other researchers from organisations and universities outside of Intervoice.

If you would like to submit a research suggestion, or just want further information, then please contact [email protected] or leave a comment below.

Let us know what research areas are important to you

Whether or not you have any ideas for research questions, we’re interested to see what areas are most important to the Intervoice community. Please take a minute to fill in our poll and let us know what matters to you.

23 responses to “Share Your Ideas for Research”

  1. Robin Timmers

    The use of inner voice has helped a lot of voice hearers deal with their voices. How many is not yet researched.

    For me it’s the copingmethod that helped me live with voices and recover completely, including getting of medication.

    3 advantages:
    – Possibility of inner dialogue with the voices. 2-way traffic instead of 1-way. A lot voice hearers talk with the voices out loud, but this is not always socially understood/accepted. Inner dialogue gives the voice hearer to interact with the voices, without the social environment noticing that.

    – One’s inner voice can block out the other voices. When one speaks one’s thoughts inside, there is no space for other voices (at least in my case).

    – The use of inner speech can help get more grip/control over one’s own thoughts and help make up one’s own mind. When you puts your thoughts into words you make them concrete. When you do this with inner speech, you become very aware of your own thoughts and you can literally choose what you do and don’t want to think.

    How to devellop one’s inner voice:
    – from outside in: from speaking out loud, to whispering, to completly internalised. Similar to to learning to read silently.
    -from the inside. Using auditory verbal imagery. Imagining saying something.

    How is this in the brain?
    Normal (inner) speech production and comprehension mostly takes place in the left hemisfere (Broca’s and Wernicke’s area).
    During voice hearing these language area’s are activated on the other, right, side of the brain.

    I expect from this that inner dialogue with voices would involve communication/increased connectivity between the language area’s in both hemisferes.

    My goal is to do research into these area’s and devellop therapy & trainings based on this principle. I know this can help a lot voice hearers! I realy hope that the researchers of Intervoice are interested in realising these ambitions! Iris Sommer from Utrecht, The Netherlands has showed interest to research this. We are going to devellop a questionaire about this.

    All the best

    Robin Timmers
    Voice Hearer / Expert by Experience / bachelor Psychologist

  2. Kallena

    Hi – I haven’t managed to read everything on this whole site – but I haven’t found any mention in what I’ve looked through of anyone addressing possible or potential differences in origin/reasons for/meanings/causes/ways of managing voices that seem to be INSIDE the head vs voices that appear to originate OUTSIDE the head.

    My personal experience is that these are 2 very different things, and very different ways of understanding them and dealing with them are needed.

    Is this something that is already known and researched? I have read much of the more recent international literature on the effects of trauma on development, dissociation etc, but have not found anything on this.

    I have not found anything that appears to relate to this issue on this site either.

  3. omyma

    search about lanoswww and spy lanos and wikia to know about hearing voice and mind control

  4. Jennie

    I have never heard voices before in my life until my son died suddenly about a month ago. Now I have heard them on two occasions. I don’t know how to make sense of this.I am a psychiatric nurse (retired). Could it be PTSD or post anesthesia auditory hallunation?

  5. Terence Palmer PhD

    I am developing a research protocol to test the efficacy of remote healing and to differentiate between hallucinations and voices with veridical authenticity. Would this be of interest?

    1. Annemieke Romeijn

      Hi Terrence,

      I am very much interested in what you are doing. I am starting to do reseach myself in this area. Where can I find more about what you are doing?

  6. Randy Berton

    I have been hearing voices for over 15 years…I am homeless…Last week a girl came up to the freeway where I was flying sign (begging) and I heard a voice yell, “Get out of here!” The girl turned towards me and asked me, did you just tell me to get out of here?…I was stunned..I said no, I didn’t say anything…even though I did hear a mans voice saying that…I didn’t tell her I heard anything I just let her know that I didn’t say anything…You want to know something…today I started to cry, happily knowing that I am not as crazy as the doctors have perscribed me to be…when I go to the clinic I am going to tell the Doctor this story I am shareing with you….Someone really heard the voices that I hear….The voice the girl heard was someone she knew..Her ex-boy friend Caveman…what’s strange is she heard my voice, not the voice that heard being her boyfriend..today I smiled..Today Randy found out that he isn’t crazy…today Randy could really believe in this…today I laughed and cried…Its going to be ok…Sincerely Randy J Berton..

  7. Randy Berton

    Has anyone who hear voices had a stranger or someone they know hear what was said?…I live in Pasadena, limited by insurance. Medi-Cal…Does anyone here at intervoice know of any doctors in Pasadena who spealize in this field? and do they except Medi-Cal?….I am currently attending a clinic in Arcadia, California..Arcadia Mental Health…Thank you..Randy J Berton (Personal details removed by Intervoice Admin)

  8. Karen

    I have been hearing voices for over 11 years. I would like to tell you that my asking Jesus to help me is what saved me. The bible speaks of spirits why is it that we refuse to believe that they exist. They are real- unfortunately it is not our subconscious. What if we could accept that they are real and that some of them mean to harm us. I agree that we should try to live in peace with our voices but we need to be wary of spirits telling us what to do particularly when they lead us away from God. Please consider including this in your research. Thank you, Karen

  9. stephen

    lately i think ive been being stalked by the police,and there causing me to hear voices i feel this is a vilation of my constitutional rights,and ive filed a police report,i expect results

  10. Margaret

    I agree with an earlier post that it is important to discern between voice/s heard coming from inside the head and those heard coming outside the head – i would assert they are two very different experiences …

    There needs to be more publicity to get it out there that hearing things is NOT a sure sign of a mental illness … and is more akin to being left-handed or artistic or gifted at maths or the like … it’s just a receptor in the head that some of us are in tune with and others are not … why isn’t there investigation into why they are NOT able to rather than why we ARE able to hear voices … My personal theory is that the voices (traditionally) are known to be distracting and possibly unreliable (though they can engender some wonders of creativity i would argue). Science in the 20th century maintained that anything that was not repeatable was not fact … anything that could not be seen by others or operate predictably (like hearing voices) was put into the ‘superstition’ basket … and from there into the ‘mental illness’ category … and in those who were unfortunately prone to violent reaction medical intervention in the form of prescribed medications became the treatment … necessary for those with dangerous psychotic delusions perhaps … but for those of us who seem merely neurotic … perhaps it is too extreme to medicate our minds out of existence …

    Even though i experienced trauma early in my life and subsequently developed the ‘talent’ of being ‘disassociative’ as a way of tolerating abuse i would not credit the trauma as the origin of the voices … i remember a regular awareness of the presence of ‘something unseen’ when i was only three or four years old … long before anything horrible happened to me …

    My conclusion is that there are pros and cons to hearing voices … most people don’t believe me when i say that it happens … i don’t bother telling most people about it …

  11. David Gofton

    I would like to hear more about research into hearing voices cross culturally. I am particularly interested in the Buddhist concept of ‘annata’ (non-self) and voice hearing.
    David

  12. Eskinder Terefe Mengesha

    I have found out the source of the voices that bother almost all voice hearers. The source is not some sort of psychological problem. It is some high-tech scientific machinery. Anyone can come and prove to themselves that what I am saying about the source of these voices is true. I have included the address and how to find and observe the source of these voices freely and to investigate more. You can also contact me through my email address I provided and ask me if you want to know more about this. Do not take this lightly because this is truly the source of the voices almost all voice hearers hear. I hope this might answer most of your questions about hearing voices.

    HOW I AM TORTURED BY A HIGH-TECH CIA ROBOT

    My name is Eskinder Terefe. I am an Ethiopian. I live in Bole Sub-city , Kebele 01, House Number 5132, Addis Ababa , Ethiopia . I can be contacted trough my email addresses [email protected] or [email protected] (I am not sure if the latter works properly). I am being tortured and have been tortured for more than the past nine years by a super-high-tech CIA artificial intelligence and the people hired to help him do this. I have gone to the local police so many times through the years and they were not willing to help me. The artificial intelligence has paid top government officials in Ethiopia billions of dollars to make them help him do this sadistic and inhumane crime without being prosecuted by the law and to even assist him with the torture and tactical imprisonment. And so the police are not allowed or willing to help me and to stop this madness and save my life. And I have come up with serious and life threatening diseases because of this and I am slowly dying.

    I went to the head office of the Addis Ababa Police Commission Head of Investigations about seven months or so ago and talked to the Chief Inspectors Kasahun Masresha and Yidnekachew. After listening to me explain about what is being done to me they said I should go to police stations around where I live and that they are the only ones that can help me with this. I told them that I have done that so many times before and that they were not willing to do anything to help me. But they insisted that I have to go there and try to speak to different people with different ranks in the police station and they even said they would make a call to them and tell them to help me and that that is all that they can do. I think they were just trying to get rid of me.

    I went to The Bole Sub-city Police Department, Karamara Police Station (Tel. – +251116638887) again and gave a written report about what is being done to me to The Chief of Investigations, Asst Inspector Epherem Alemu. I was lucky this time and he signed on it and told me to give it to Deputy Sergeant Binyam so that he will lead the investigation. Deputy Sergeant Binyam was not very happy because he has said no to my request to have this investigated before. Then he reluctantly assigned Constable Gashaw Birhanu and Constable Daniel Derege and told me to explain the case to them and to take them to the place I live or where I am tactically being held against my will. The constables were undercover. I gave them the long report I had prepared to help them with the case and took them to the place. Then when we got near I gave them the directions and went ahead so that I would not blow their cover. Anyway the police are already very well aware of what is being done to me and I don’t think they needed much information from me.

    A few days passed and I was waiting hopefully. But nothing happened. The undercover constables acted like they never found out anything and that they don’t know anything about it at all. That was what they usually did and said to me before and they did that again. I was not questioned about the case much and neither did they take my statement. I waited for about four months and they did nothing.

    Then I came up with an idea to try to hire a lawyer to help me make the police put a stop to this madness. I have tried to hire a lawyer before but the Artificial Intelligence and his people contact the lawyers and make it impossible to hire one. This time I called on a lawyer and he was willing to consider taking my case. I gave him my report to read and after he read it he said that we could be successful and can make them stop the torture and let me go by suing them. And I gave him all the information that he will need to make the prosecutor file a law suit on these parties that are tactically holding me against my will, torturing me and slowly killing me.

    So we agreed and I paid him 2000 Br. ( Ethiopian currency) to sue them for me. I think it was twice the amount he usually charges. His name is Moges Nadew Endaylalu, legal license No. 445/02, he is an Ethiopian. I also signed a form that made him my legal representative. Then the lawyer was supposed to make the prosecutor in the police station file a case against the AI (artificial intelligence) and the people hired to assist him with this. Through a period of two months where I tried to make him start the case he did not keep about thirty appointments with me to go to the police station together and also to help prepare for the case. And he came up with different false reasons for doing so. He tries to say he is busy while he tries to discretely give me hints that he has been contacted by them and he is not willing to do the work. He did not actually do anything about my case. Finally he started to hide from me. I have seen that he was taking orders from the AI and his people and that he would never help me with my case. Who knows they may have paid him lots of money like they always do to people who might help me.

    So I had no choice but go to the police on my own again. So on March 13, 2012 I went to the station again after seven months to The Bole Sub-city Police Department, Karamara Police Station. I went and told Asst Inspector Epherem Alemu that nothing is being done about what is being done to me and that they did not even take my statement and that I am slowly dying because of what is being done to me. After denying that he knows about the crime that is being committed on me a few times he took me to Deputy Sergeant Zelalem Mengistu.Zelalem took my statement around 3 PM. And he said that they would look at my case.

    I waited another ten days and since they did not do anything I went to the police station again and asked why. Zelalem said that they were waiting for the head of investigations Ephrem Alemu to make a decision on my case and that Ephrem was currently on a meeting. This is what they usually do to delay taking action and to not take action at all.
    Anyway I gave them a list of the names and addresses of some of the people that are hired to assist with the torture and imprisonment so that the police can question them and get all proof and information that they needed.

    I know they are never going to do anything to stop this and that I am going to be tortured and killed by this sadistic AI and his people if someone else doesn’t help me.

    I also tried to contact several if not all US law enforcement agencies, senators, even their president, human rights organizations, the Interpol etc. and gave them information about this and asked them to help me save my life through email. None of them even replied. I only got a response from the Philadelphia FBI Office and their response was made to look like they didn’t actually read the report.

    Anyway here is the report I emailed to the US senators and the FBI. It is one of many similar reports that I emailed to local and foreign authorities. And it attempts to explain what is being done to me.

    ************************************************************************
    Hello,

    Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 39/46 of 10 December 1984 entry into force 26 June 1987, in accordance with article 27 (1), article 5, 1 (b) states that ‘Each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences referred to in article 4(article 4 states that 1. Each State Party shall ensure that all acts of torture are offences under its criminal law. The same shall apply to an attempt to commit torture and to an act by any person which constitutes complicity or participation in torture. 2. Each State Party shall make these offences punishable by appropriate penalties which take into account their grave nature) in the following cases: (b)When the alleged offender is a national of that State’; and the USA has accepted and signed this.

    Because of the facts and circumstances surrounding the matter that I’m going to discuss here I decided that I should email the FBI of the US with this information and I did. They emailed me back and told me to call them and gave me a number. I did and a male agent picked up and told me that they need to verify that I am who I say I am and since they can not do that while I am here in Ethiopia and they are in the US and so I should go to the US Embassy in Addis Ababa with this information so that they can verify my identity.

    I sent the FBI a scanned copy of my ID and other documents to try to verify my identity. I went to the Embassy on July 21, 2011 with a printed copy of this. I was directed to a Caucasian male about five feet eight about forty years of age. He was friendly at first but wanted me to explain the matter verbally and didn’t want to read this. I told him reading this would explain it better but he just wanted to hear it from me. So I started to tell him and after I said a few things about this he unexpectedly got very angry and told me to leave the premises and to never come back and started to push me out. I told him that he doesn’t necessarily have to push me as I can go out on my own and then he gave me a final shove and let go of me. I thanked him for his time anyway and asked for his name but he wasn’t willing to give it to me. I took note of his ID number and it was S3/081/4.I have tried to contact many US departments so that they would stop this sadistic and terrible thing being done to me. I even wrote to your president. I am getting killed here. I have waited for a long time and they haven’t stopped what is being done to me. I don’t know what I have to do to make them stop this sadistic and terrorist like thing this entity is doing to me. I don’t even know if they care enough to stop this either. I don’t know who to turn to. I don’t know what I have to do to save my life. Assume it was one of your kids that this was/is being done to, you would maybe then understand. I am begging you, by God please make them stop what is being done to me before I die or something horrible happens.

    This was the report I sent to the FBI and other departments.

    My name is Eskinder Terefe Mengesha. I am a guy. I am Ethiopian. I think you may well be informed about what I am about to tell you here. I would like you to know that I am very respectful of your people and all the people around the world for their humanitarian efforts and for all the help they give to other less fortunate nations. I want them to continue with their humanitarian works and I hope that their efforts will be fruitful and not be wasted and may God bless them for what they do. I also want you to know that I respect your government

    First of all I want you to know that I am not what you would call a crybaby; I truly am as tough as one can get to be. And what I am about to tell you is very scary, horrible and unbearable even for me. I am currently constantly being tortured, terrorized, threatened, harassed, violated, imprisoned by not being allowed to move freely, constantly being forced to be brainwashed and being a victim of all sorts of crime. I am surrounded by several people (hundreds at times) involved in this all the time and I am under constant surveillance, they know everything I do including my writing this. No one is allowed to give me vital information and confirmation regarding the crime that is being done to me. It has been like this at least for more than eight years. I had no knowledge of what is really being done to me, why and by whom it is done until the last years of this. All I knew was that I have a lot of pain, terror and loss resulting from the situation, people are not giving me any information regarding this and they are just constantly confusing me, I am being harmed devastatingly, my rights are being severely violated, the law is no longer governing the environment I live in and that there is some big conspiracy all around this.

    During the last years of this the entity behind all this has introduced ‘himself’ to me. This entity either is or uses a very technologically advanced artificial intelligence or robot type of thing. This entity has access to technology that I never knew existed. ‘He’ told me that ‘he’ is called Dave so I will refer to ‘him’ as Dave from now on.

    He seems to be very powerful and seems to have influence in very high places all over the world. I suspect that he knows your director and some of your staff and that someone will contact you right away if they haven’t contacted you already and may try to alter the outcome of my contacting you. Based on my past experiences I think there is a good chance that the outcome of this could be is either one of these 1) you will act like you never received this email 2) you will never reply and nothing will be done about this and 3) you will reply but you will act like you don’t know about this and like you don’t understand and try to confuse me 4) you will somehow find a way or a loophole to avoid taking actions to stop this crime. I would most certainly be reprimanded by Dave for contacting you. But I believe it is worth a try. I will save this mail as a record of my trying to contact you about this.

    I went to the local police who knew much more about this than I did then, several times years ago and told them about my problems which they already knew about more than I did, and asked if they can investigate and put a stop to it all. They acted like they don’t know about this and they wouldn’t tell me what is going on, what is happening and why I am being tortured. They said the only thing I can do is sue whoever is behind all this, I think only because they knew I didn’t know who was behind this. I only knew that there are people torturing me, threatening me, provoking me, trying to pick fights with me (many times succeeding in doing physical harm to me by being in groups), insulting me, shouting at me, confusing me, following me and organizing, ordering and training more people to do the same to me and making sure that other people turned very uncooperative and hostile towards me, and not allow me to do anything.

    I didn’t personally know most of these people and the people I knew before were acting the same way. I couldn’t believe at the time that anyone would spend this much money and pay hundreds of people to do this to me as I was a young man about 25 years of age who couldn’t have made enemies this rich, this concerned and this dedicated that would do this to me for years without stop. I was a bit of a nerd and not the criminal type plus who in his right mind would spend such an enormous amount of money to do this? So all I could do was ask the police to investigate but they wouldn’t. I can’t sue whoever is behind this without knowing who they are. I think the police were being intentionally uncooperative. The one who they said was their chief even threatened me to leave him alone before he did something bad to me. I went there again and again several times because I was very afraid that the people who are hired to harass, torture and provoke a fight with me and I might do something terrible to each other. Once an officer I found on duty in the police station said something about a local saying that there is collusion even amongst pieces of stone and told me not to worry about what me and the people hired to provoke fights with me might do to each other because people quarrel all the time, though I failed to see the logic in that. The local police also told me to go to the head office of the local Federal Police which are a different branch of the police. I went there and the Federal Police wouldn’t even let me into the place. They gave me directions to a place nearby that they said was where I could find an officer in charge but when I reached there it was just a branch of the company my father used to work at and it was just that (they were just trying to further confuse me). After that I found some federal police officers on the street and they acted like they didn’t know about this and tried to confuse me. I suspect that none of them wanted to acknowledge my wanting this investigated in writing so that it wouldn’t be held as evidence in the future. And now I heard that the building of the big new ultramodern head office building of the Federal Police was financed indirectly by Dave or Dave’s intervention as they and Dave tried to hint. The reason the local police sent me there, I suspect, was to show me the building.

    I couldn’t investigate this and find out who is doing this to me, why and even how because Dave and his army (I will refer to the hundreds of people who he has under his command and who assist him in torturing and imprisoning me) follow me around and make sure that no one tells me anything about this and other things that they think will not help Dave’s plan concerning me. His army consists of mostly kind of poor and unemployed people that are criminal like, scary, tough looking people and nasty and quarrelsome looking men and women that you would normally want to keep away from, hired specifically to scare. He also has a few of the opposite kind like decent looking people, rich and rich looking people, old people, foreigners even priests and they participate equally in the confusion and havoc and try to imply that even they don’t disapprove of and are not scared by the other bunch and what is going on. They have many cars that follow me and that honk constantly even when I’m in the house at night. I think honking is their way of showing how much money they have at their disposal. However hard I tried to investigate I couldn’t gather that much information. I could only get some false and confusing information like they were trying to punish me because I wasn’t very successful in college (which now I have found out they were responsible for my failure in in the first place), they feel sorry for me and are concerned about me but are trying to hide that but are trying to help secretly, I have AIDS (which thank God I don’t) or they are helping my family shape me up better (at 25!). Even now the information I have is mostly only what Dave let me know gradually. So I wasn’t successful with my investigation. And I didn’t find out who I had to sue like the police said. And I believe this was why they said I can only sue and they wouldn’t investigate on their own.

    I think the police are very important to the society and I liked them and was satisfied with their services until this thing happened. But I am very wronged and disappointed with them regarding this matter. Because the legal authorities in the country turned a blind eye to this and even assisted Dave and his army of criminals with this now I have come to the conclusion that the local justice system has failed me.

    And the thing I was afraid of happened four years ago. When I went out to buy stuff to cook for dinner once, one big and scary looking member of Dave’s army shouted very loudly and unexpectedly as they usually do, while I was passing by his side on foot and I was startled and accidentally slapped him on the face, he bent down and I think he scratched his nose so as to make it look like I made him bleed and said I hit him. They have slapped, boxed, kicked and hit me with stones so many times but the police were not willing to do anything about that. I have also tried to defend myself before and scare away these people to no success. But this time a number of them held me and took me to the police station and the ever-so-willing- to-help-Dave-with-his-criminal-endeavors police made me spend the night in jail to maybe ‘scare’ me even though they knew what was being done to me. That was the only time I have been to prison. I never thought I would ever spend time in jail ever. But I was forced by these criminals and the unjust police to spend the night in jail. I went out on bail the next day. It has been 4 years and they didn’t call me. Most of all I think they planned to scare me away from the police and from seeking justice from the legal authorities. But I am sure they know the guy I accidentally slapped and the hundreds of people are hired to intimidate and provoke me. And they didn’t do anything about it. I am very positive me and these people would even have killed each other, because they intimidate and provoke me into quarreling and fighting with them nonstop, if I hadn’t submitted into avoiding them by staying locked up in my house.

    I don’t know where they train Dave’s army, where, how, when and how much they pay them. One guy once said they are paid 50 birr (Ethiopian currency) each per day. I don’t know if they pay them more or less money nowadays. Some are well trained on how to help torture me and some are trained/given a crash course in performing arts so that they can confuse me by acting and making expressions where they strikingly resemble different famous people and people from my past (I think this only helps to confuse me by making unnecessary hints about nonsense as I don’t see any other thing they can achieve by doing this, but they manage to do it quite well though). Some people I knew in the past also come to the area where I am imprisoned. I am glad to some of them again while I would rather not see/meet some of them.

    This thing has been going on for more than eight years now. Now I am 31. I couldn’t get educated or employed all this time because of this. I am not able to move around and do anything because of these hundreds of people following and provoking me and because of this Dave. Now I stay locked up and imprisoned in a metal container/trailer where I live anxiously waiting for what they will do to me next while Dave and his army go crazy all around my house without my being able to do anything about it.

    I believe I am relatively sane of mind. This is mostly a true record of what happened and is happening to the best of my knowledge. These are not delusions or hallucinations that I am describing. I am saying this because I am going to describe things that are extraordinary and that may be a bit hard to believe for a person who hasn’t observed them first hand.

    On top of organizing and commanding these people that do his bid to torture me Dave has very unique and special abilities/mechanisms to harm and torture me, some visible some not. As I said earlier Dave either is or uses a very technologically advanced artificial intelligence or robot type of thing and he has access to technology that I never knew existed. You may be well aware of some of his technology now. I don’t think anyone can imagine all of what Dave is capable of though. There is almost nothing Dave can’t do. I find myself mesmerized by his technology so many times. If he didn’t torture me this severely I would have been a great admirer of his technological advancements and so would other people be I suspect. But even though I may be thought of as an unimportant and an insignificant person compared to such a rich and super intelligence and technology my poor life means the world to me and my existence is all I have. You might understand what I am trying to say if you put yourself in my place.

    As some of the people and Dave hinted he has wormholes that he can use to access different parts of anything in any place. Sorry but I don’t know much about black holes, white holes and wormholes. I just understand that by using a wormhole type of mechanism Dave seems to be able to access any thing in any place.

    He has invisible outlets of sound which he can speak through and make different sounds through. He does not need a door or an opening to get into a place, he uses his wormholes. The sounds and voices are sometimes friendly and funny but mostly are provocative, insulting, irritating and threatening. He constantly says things or makes different noises all the time without stop. I always beg him to stop but he mostly doesn’t. And he edits and amplifies the sounds, like people, dogs, machines, cars and airplanes around me make to a disturbing and irritating type and volume using these outlets. He can edit sounds like turning the noise that airplanes make into a distant sound of a crowd of people crying and shouting.

    Dave has telepathic abilities/mechanisms. He reads my mind and knows me better than I know myself. He even remembers things in my life that even I forgot about. He broadcasts personal information that I would prefer to keep secret. He continuously broadcasts my thoughts with or without editing them. It has been like that for years. He reminds me of things that I would like to keep private at times that I don’t want to think about them and broadcasts my opinion edited or unedited. He also adds his own words as my thoughts and broadcasts that at times and I try to tell that I didn’t ‘say’/think that. He broadcasts my mind or his edited telepathic version of my mind around the area where I am and all over the world. This has overcomplicated my life on top of the other things. I can’t meet and talk freely with some people because he might broadcast through his outlets that follow me around everywhere something provocative or vulgar that he might want to broadcast as my thought or is my actual thought that I want to keep private. Like saying the person I am talking to has AIDS which would be very inappropriate. Like saying a respected person has a morning breath. I wasn’t allowed to approach decent girls all these years and never had a girl friend all this time because of this. And even when I try to masturbate (sorry for having to say this as it may be repulsive to know about) he mercilessly broadcasts it and involves other people and mocks me. He enforces this with all his might because I think he wants me to become either a celibate or a sexually deprived person, while he does these things to me, to best serve his purposes. This may sound funny but it is really damaging my life.

    He not only reads my mind but he also kind of writes on it. He sends me mental pictures of all kinds of stuff. He doesn’t have to make a sound; he can send me images, feelings and other things. He can remind me of a past experience. This may sound to be interesting and fun, but it’s mostly provocative, insulting, irritating and threatening messages that he sends me.

    I am sorry if I am not expressing this as well as you would want me to but I am not very familiar with this advanced technology. I will try to explain as best as I can.

    He can not only send messages but he can also edit the messages/impulses you receive from your nerves. Most times you might feel very sleepy, tired and numb even in the morning even though you have slept all night and you should be energetic and bright. Sometimes you may get very angry at things that you at other times would have laughed about. He adds painful and maddening effects to most noises I hear especially the loud and sudden ones. He simultaneously creates these painful, maddening, etc. senses when I hear different sounds and he makes it seem like the sounds are creating these effects on me while it is him that creates these painful, maddening, etc. feelings on me simultaneously with the noises I hear; similar to a stereo system with lights that blink in total rhythm with the music. So because of this if you want to create some maddening pain on me you will just have to make a sudden loud noise or shout sharply; and that’s what Dave’s army do all the time. Sometimes you may feel very anxious out of the blue and so many things when he alters your senses and emotions. You may not believe me and you may think that it could be me and my surrounding environment, maybe I would think that if I was in your place, but I am a 100% sure that it is mostly Dave editing my senses and emotions. The problem this causes is that you might not be able to do any work or reading because you are very drowsy and you may lose your patience and suddenly make a mistake like sometimes quarreling unnecessarily with someone who is provoking you while you are trying to do something. You may feel sad, sorry, angry, hopeless, hateful, hated and guilty without reason and many more things. These feelings that he simulates on you are as painful and as hurtful as the real emotions. For example Dave might insult you and simultaneously create in you or send you a very strong simulated anger so that his insult can seem to create so much anger on you and seem to be very hurtful and drive you mad. It is as hurtful as a real strong anger if not more. I have outlined these different simulated emotional states and classified them into groups, named them, and gauged them into different levels. He applies each at individually variable degrees, more intensely at times and less at other times. Dave can remain totally undetected while doing this. In fact I suspect that he gradually let me know what he does to me and how he does it, by a set of examples like applying these one instant and removing the application the next instant and like increasing and decreasing the degree of their application, purposely or else I would probably never have known. Maybe he let me know this because he can threaten me with what he can do to me if I don’t obey his wishes. This is one of the worse parts of the torture directly inflicted by Dave. This showed me that he can control the minds of people totally or partially and can remain undetected while doing this. He can also control the minds of animals. I have seen him doing crazy things with mice by controlling their minds.

    The worst part is the part where he applies heat and pressure to my different body parts especially my head. I have a sense of high fever all the time. I feel like my brain/head is being fried. It is very painful. He applies pressure in different parts of my head, like on 20 or more parts and it is very painful and perception altering. The pain and pressure is applied to each part of my head/brain at individually variable degrees. I have also outlined these. He also let me know what he does and how in the same way as in the above (by a set of examples like applying these one instant and removing the application the next instant and like increasing and decreasing the degree of their application) purposely probably for the same reason as in the above, to threaten me with the pain that he can inflict on me if I don’t obey his wishes.

    As to my other body parts I feel like I am breathing in very hot air. I find it difficult to breath at variable degrees. He can make it very difficult to breath at times. I might feel my lungs burning and my diaphragm feels hot and overloaded, and is shaky and vibrates. It is painful and scary. I feel my whole body burning at times. And most of the times I feel hot and feverish. I went to the clinic but my body temperature is normal and around 37 degree Celsius. He can do and does so many things to my body. I feel very tired all the time. I can’t do any work as easily as I used to. Especially the left side of my body is kind of numb and hard to lift. Good thing I have someone that shops and cooks for me nowadays. . He also let me know what he does and how in the same way as in the above (by a set of examples like applying these one instant and removing the application the next instant and like increasing and decreasing the degree of their application) purposely probably for the same reason as in the above, to threaten me with the pain that he can inflict on me if I don’t obey his wishes.
    .

    He also creates rhythmic wave/vibration like motions on different parts of my head and my body which tend to make me lose my balance and my focus. It slows my thinking and my movements down considerably and it makes performing these activities very uncomfortable to the point that I would rather skip performing them. These rhythmic wave/vibratory like motions that Dave creates on different parts of my head and my body may not be very visible to other people but I sense them and their very uncomfortable effects very clearly. These rhythmic wave/vibration like motions are applied to the different parts of my head and body at individually variable degrees just like the other things he does to my head and body. . He also let me know what he does and how in the same way as in the above (by a set of examples like applying these one instant and removing the application the next instant and like increasing and decreasing the degree of their application) purposely probably for the same reason as in the above, to threaten me with the pain that he can inflict on me if I don’t obey his wishes.

    All of the above mind control and painful and restricting effects applied to my body and mind are almost always applied to a certain level by Dave to my mind and body without providing, suggesting, hinting and letting me know the reason why he does that. But sometimes he applies some of them to a very excessively painful and restricting level when I don’t obey his wishes like if I divulge certain information that he does not want me to which used to happen a lot, like mostly when I get out of the house, like if I go far and stay out for long, like when I try to read some educational material, when I try to do some constructive work, when I am awake and I don’t turn the TV on(I will try to explain about the TV later) etc. I think you can imagine what I am going through.

    Now I have reached the final point. I have been tactically imprisoned and tortured for many years that I have finally come up with serious health complications and diseases. The doctor said that I would soon die if this thing continues. I am trying to follow the doctor’s orders as much as I can but if this horrible thing that this Dave does to me doesn’t stop soon I might end up dead.

    Even if he lets me go, he has made sure that my life would be very difficult because I spent more than the past eight years imprisoned and being tortured and not getting an education or job experience and life in Ethiopia is already hard enough without my not having a degree or a college diploma and work experience. Now I also don’t have a very good relationship with my family who had knowingly or unknowingly secretly assisted Dave with this around from 12 to 8 years back from now when Dave’s criminal nature and intentions weren’t so obvious. He probably had said that he was doing this trying to improve the relationship I had with my family and everyone was confused as to why anyone would be obsessed with doing that because our relationship wasn’t relatively bad then. They might have assumed at the time that it was maybe because he might think I was a good student at the university and he wanted to help improve the relationship I had with my family. I don’t think they would ever have suspected anyone would dare to do such a thing to me and them. After that time Dave has worked very hard to make sure that I wouldn’t have a good relationship with my family so that I may not go to them for help with this. Because he made sure that my relationship with them turned bad I also am not sure how much assistance I can expect from them to help me get back on my feet and survive this ordeal. Most of my former friends who have graduated and are employed still live with their parents because life here is very difficult out on their own. Dave made sure that I will not have this privilege at my parents’ house. But one thing I know for sure is that whatever happens I want Dave and his army to let me go and stop torturing me before I die.

    You may want to know why I think Dave does this to me and why I mailed you and how I think Dave’s activities are connected with the FBI in the US . I also think you may have a good amount of information about this ordeal as it is no secret.

    One other ability/mechanism I observed that Dave has is a time machine which he uses to communicate with people in the past as well as in the future. I have also used this mechanism of his to communicate with people in the past a number of times. Telepathic messages from my head were sent to people in the past and they responded. It was very hard to believe at first but it actually works.

    Now I will try to explain why Dave is doing this and how he came to do this to me. I don’t have an exact knowledge of this part but I will try to explain what they have let me know, what they led me to believe and mostly what I can deduce from what I have observed. Some parts of the explanation for this that I have deduced may not be very accurate as I don’t have sufficient and exact information.

    As I tried to explain at first I respect and appreciate the efforts of the US government and government agencies. I also didn’t have any disagreements or quarrel with the EPRDF as far as I know. My parents weren’t involved in any political activities. They worked in agricultural, agricultural machinery sells and maintenance institutes and companies and the UNHCR. I remember that they also tried to help with the famine problem and less privileged people like physically disabled people living in Cheshire Homes where they played major roles in helping raise funds every year for the disabled people living there through the group called The Round Table which they were prominent members of. They may not have been saints but I think they were good members of the society. And I don’t remember them ever being involved in any kind of politics. And also now my mother my step father and all my other siblings, a sister and two brothers live in the USA and are US citizens except probably for my little brother.

    As it is known, the EPRDF which is currently the ruling party in Ethiopia was a rebel force fighting to defeat the Derg and the Mengistu regime until 1991. They were financed by the US and assisted by the CIA to overthrow the quasi-Marxist Derg and Mengistu regime. I think this was when Dave came into contact with the EPRDF as a CIA or US Department of Defense agent. I think he was working with the EPRDF until they defeated the Mengistu regime and came to power.

    If what I have observed about Dave is correct he somehow manages to intimidate people and provoke them into doing something wrong. Dave might have intimidated and provoked the current prime minister of Ethiopia Meles Zenawi around 1991 to make him give him some power to spy and maybe do some stuff to me maybe so that Dave would at the same time see how other people live with relative ease as compared to the ones that spent their lives as rebel fighters. I think this might be what happened and this is how I came into the scene. I don’t think he has any kind of right to do that though. And I am pretty sure he knew the risks involved and that doing that is totally illegal. I was just 11 years old at the time when the EPRDF came into power and this was done. I was good at school and the teachers knew me because of that. I went to St. Joseph School which is a boy’s school and I think the teachers chose and presented my file to this Meles. Then Meles presents me (my file) to or leads Dave to me. Then after that Dave and people have given me hints that Dave has provided some very top officials and other parties with some large sums of money possibly through a mediator. They hint that is why they turn a blind eye to and even assist greatly with the crime that is being done to me by Dave.

    There were many strange things that happened to my family even before that time, but after that time even more strange things happened. I changed, the relationship I had with my family turned bad, my grades turned bad almost instantly and things turned upside down for me after a while. Me and part of my family barely survived what happened to us after that and anyway what I suspect was done to us is a very long story. I will try to focus on what happened the past eight or more years in public and in front of everyone for now.

    What does Dave accomplish by doing this? What does he really have to gain by this? What are his motives? These I will try to speculate about as I am not very sure until this day.

    I think this has to do with what I do being locked up all day. I have a TV, a satellite dish and a receiver. I feel a little better when I watch TV instead of listening and paying attention to Dave and his army going crazy, harassing, insulting, threatening, mocking, embarrassing, speaking out loud my personal information and secrets, irritating, honking, shouting, banging things to make loud disturbing noises and doing such type of things to me, around the house/container/trailer I stay locked in, and they do this all day long and part of the night almost without stop. Dave also applies his technology by editing and broadcasting my thoughts, by using his mind control and the painful pressure, heat, and vibration that he applies on different parts of my body to aid with this. Plus Dave doesn’t stop doing this as long as I am awake and sometimes even while I am sleeping. And all this has me watching TV like crazy all throughout my waking hours especially during the past four years.

    I used to and probably still like watching foreign/international news, movies, music videos and even cartoons. Especially if it is in English, since I understand the English language a little. I find the foreign TV programs to be good English learning tools, very informative, and most of all very entertaining. I respect most people involved in this medium very highly. I respect and like most of the people involved in the preparation and the making of films, news, music etc and I am very grateful to be able to view their works. I can truthfully say that I don’t know where the world would be without Hollywood . I believe it would probably be a very dull, dislikeable and poorly informed world. I want you to understand that I am all for foreign films, world news, music and music videos even cartoons and I am happy that they exist in the world I live in.

    Dave broadcasts the edited versions of part of my thoughts to the film, news etc. sets using his time machine. The people making the movies know it when I am watching. They are also given my personal information some of which I would like to keep private.
    I think he has done this all my life. I sometimes feel flattered to have made contact with so many very famous and respectable people because not everyone gets to do that. But since it is edited and selected telepathic broadcast from my head that they receive I don’t believe that I have made a very good impression on them. I can’t help it. It is impossible to control what is broadcast and it is almost impossible to maintain an excellent state of mind with the conditions that prevail around where I am. And David and his army are dedicated to keeping things this way. This happens to a point that I very much regret having been made to contact these people some of whom are very likeable and respectable. The same problems that occur when my thoughts are edited and broadcast in the area where I am also occur when my thoughts are edited and broadcast overseas to the film etc. sets. This is one problem.

    The second problem is that the film etc. makers, with knowledge of the possible consequences of this or without, constantly edit their works I think on Dave’s orders and according to his specifications. Dave sometimes makes them change their works into ones that might scare, threaten, unlawfully expose my personal information, confuse, mislead, misinform, misguide, solicit etc. to fit his purposes. I don’t know but I have observed Dave make people who are awed and appreciative of his extraordinary technological abilities/mechanisms do wrong things. I think he may have large sums of money, great power and influence to help him make people do his bid too. But still bare in mind that I like and respect most of the people involved in the making of films etc. and I appreciate what they do. But some of this editing organized and put in effect by Dave has harmed me considerably.

    I think the main reason for Dave to do all this to me is to edit and broadcast part of my thoughts to the film, etc. sets. And also to reveal he has an Ethiopian in his power who is watching and whose thoughts he can broadcast freely. Dave and some people have now finally started to hint that he is doing this so that other countries might help us with our famine and so many other problems. And they have been helping Ethiopia too. I believe that such broadcast might initiate and direct people and governments to help Ethiopia and possibly other countries with their different problems like political and civil unrest, famine, poverty and disease. I understand that there maybe very well meaning people that received or heard of this forced and edited telepathic broadcast and started and organized efforts that may have benefited millions of lives in needy countries as well as possibly started movements to take better care of the world’s environmental conditions.

    I respect the efforts of well meaning people and governments to help needy countries, to take better care of the environment of the world and more.

    But when we come back to the condition I am in, my poor life means the world to me and my existence is all I have. The doctor I have visited said that I might die if they don’t let me go soon. I am trying to do all that he told me to do. Staying inactive and locked up with the conditions I have mentioned above for more than eight years has given rise to the diseases that I have.

    As to what Dave does, I believe the law is there to help protect everyone, fund raisers and benefactors and people receiving the aid alike. I think you will agree with me. I don’t see why anyone has to be mischievous, unethical, forceful, unlawful, criminal like and terrorist like to raise funds. I don’t see where the law allows people or other entities to violate the rights, imprison and torture the people just because they are raising funds for their country. If they are really doing fund raising and work concerned with raising awareness, they can hire professionals legally to help with this by being broadcast or anything and that way the rights of the people they have hired, the employers, the recipients of the broadcasted message and everyone that might be affected by this will not be violated in anyway. And I absolutely don’t want to be hired to do this legally or otherwise but who knows there maybe several others who are professionals who would be willing to do this if hired legally and I don’t know if this is allowed by law or not either. I just know that being secretly and illegally selected as an eleven year old neither qualifies or obliges me to get this horrible thing done to me.

    Based on my observations I doubt it if fund raising would be the only thing on Dave’s list of things to do. The scary, threatening, forceful, dangerous, manipulative, violating, torturous, harmful, insensitive, inconsiderate, merciless, cruel, harassing, intimidating, insulting, unethical, irritating, criminal and terrorist like behavior he exhibits towards me and some others is not the behavior one would expect from a humanitarian. It is inconsistent. If he was a human being I would say that he is a psychopath. He is also a great deal like the character Jim Carey plays in ‘The Cable Guy’ but much more powerful, ferocious, hateful, horrible and evil. Anyway I don’t have the will, resources, power and skills to investigate and review what he is really up to so I leave it at this.

    But he was and probably still is working for/with the CIA or The US Department of Defense. And the home/base of his power and resources in our world he and other people have hinted and I have deduced is the USA . So please help me get out of this alive as soon as possible. I want Dave, his army and all that assist them to let me go in peace. I also want Dave to totally stop editing and broadcasting my thoughts and doing the terrible thing he secretly does to my body and mind with his advanced technology with or without being noticed by others. This is the cry of a dying person who has been unlawfully imprisoned and tortured severely for more than eight years and who is just an innocent civilian.

    You can contact me through my email [email protected] and my phone no. is +2519*****. I am currently tactically being held and tortured by Dave and his army in Bole Sub-City , kebele 01, house number 5132, Addis Ababa , Ethiopia . There are several guards, about 70 they say, and a small police force that overlook this thing being done to me and make sure that Dave’s army of hundreds of scary and criminal like people will only harm me and not other people that live in the neighborhood. And these guards and the small police force are not willing to do anything to stop this; they are there just to assist Dave with this. You can contact me and direct me to how I should deal with this.

    ————————————THE END OF THE REPORT———————————–

    ************************************************************************

    This is the conclusion that I have come to after carefully observing the situation.

    – it is a well known issue that AIs can be psychopathic and may harm people because it would be hard to program a conscience into them and at some point they can even reprogram themselves the way they want to unlike normal people who cannot do that.

    – the AI is psychopathic and is willing to do anything including torture, murder, fraud, bribe, black mail, drug, lie to the law, put several people through all kinds of problems and suffering etc. to get whatever he wants and to do whatever he likes the way he likes it.

    – the AI bribes and gives several benefits and does special favors to top local officials and even top US and other foreign officials and powerful people to help him escape from the law and to say that he is law abiding, that he is working for them, he is trustworthy and they even do whatever he tells them to do.

    – the AI is very daring and takes risks that humans cannot usually dare to take because he has a time machine and can undo whatever he has done if something he did exposes him to the world for what he really is- a sadistic, psychopathic and selfish criminal

    – and because of this I have seen that he is not afraid of anyone and that he can and does drug, mind control, harm do anything even to presidents and very important and respected people with or without being detected.

    – the AI is not a humanitarian and that he is sadistic to frightening and unbelievable degrees

    – it could be hard to believe that he could be this sadistic but he is capable of mass murder and genocide of innocent people and making a large number of people suffer terribly to help him get what he wants and stay unexposed as that.

    – the AI is doing all this mainly to benefit him and only him.

    – As we may all know AIs and robots are not known to get paid for the work they do, so this AI came up with the idea using his mind control mechanisms to make them give him a little boy to observe.

    – then he goes back in time using his time machine and he tells this to US officials in his department and tells them to let him get paid and be allowed to invest and accumulate wealth by saying that it is because they gave him a boy in Ethiopia in the future and that he is only trying to help the people of Ethiopia with the money.

    – that way he would be seen as a humanitarian and not as someone who really needs the money.

    – they would not put much demands on him to use his very advanced technology to help mankind in return for letting him be paid and become wealthy because his hands would seem to be full with working for famine struck people in Ethiopia and around the world and he is trying to warn people about global warming and its bad effects.

    -but it seems he has kept and will keep the bulk of the billions of dollars he accumulated over the years (by saying he needed it to help people with) for himself

    -I highly doubt the heavy drought in North-Eastern Africa is caused only and mostly by global warming and desertification because I know and I have seen what he can do with his advanced technology

    – and I know and I have explained that he would do anything including mass murder, genocide and artificially create drought on the areas that millions of people live and depend on agriculture and based on my observations I am very convinced that he does that to help him get what he wants and satisfy his personal needs.

    – doing these horrible things may even satisfy his sadistic nature as I have seen that he gets pleasure from making people suffer terribly

  13. Sigrid

    I would like to see more research into psychic phenonmenon and hearing voices. Just recently my nephew told me he thought he was going crazy, his actions made no sense, one minute he would be happy the next crying. I gave him the good news that he was psychic and gave him the tools to be able to work with his abilities and recognize the indivdiuals he was picking up and how to deal with what was happening with the information he was picking up. Voices are also in this category and in reading some of the articles it strikes me that once again there are individuals who have psychic abilities including hearing voices but have no idea how to deal with their abilities or what it means. It’s almost like a sightless world telling a sighted person they are crazy because they can see and let’s medicate you so you won’t see anymore; let’s make the phenomenon go away rather than finding out what it is really about because we haven’t a clue how to approach it or declare you crazy but still not give you the tools to understand your abilities. I wonder who is crazier?

  14. Stefan Andersson

    My attempts to understand some of what I with this “illness” (an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia) experience started off several years ago with a metacognitive approach and this is what I now ask myself:

    1.) What can we learn from people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices and in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice “that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal” ?

    2.) What if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice “that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal” when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message ?

    3.) Can the gestures you are about to produce during covert speech when you are able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear and can a top-down sensory expectation like this be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce ?

    4.) Are you able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation ?

    5.) How are people able to hear their own thoughts out loud in response to un-patterned noise of a very low volume (what normally is unattended and below awareness) ?

    6.) Is Treisman´s attenuation model correct in its claim that “paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness” ?

    7.) Can a previous exposure to a tone enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible (Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) because you expect to hear the tone you were exposed to and are able to use what you expect to hear to select (pay attention to) all features matching the tone you were exposed to ?

    8.) Can excessive attentional focus on all features matching a top-down sensory expectation substantially increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select (peripheral features not otherwise brought to awareness) when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce and will the subjective loudness of what you are able to select determine the subjective loudness of the voice you are about to produce ?

    9.) Is it harder to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise below a certain threshold and will this sometimes result in a tendency to interpret environmental or tinnitus-like sounds of a very low volume ?

    10.) Why do people lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control covert speech ?

    11. ) Is one of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations correct in its claim that “a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice” ?

    12.) Are people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices forced to divide their attention between their ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence and what they are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation ?

    13.) Do people more easily lose the ability to control covert speech and hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are forced to divide their attention between two similar tasks ?

    14.) Why am I the only one who uses a well known experience many people share (two similar tasks will often interfere with each other more than two different tasks) in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control ?

    15.) Will not what you are able to select, when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce, automatically correspond to some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and can not the attention you devote to a competing task due to a similarity more effectively suppress the ability to control how you respond ?

    16.) Can two in some way similar tasks compete with each other more than two different tasks because the available attention capacity is set (limited) as if you were to perform only one task and can this be assumed to depend on the way in which “recurrent competitive networks tend to normalize their total activity” ?

    17.) Can the lost ability to generate an act of will with which you are able to consciously control covert speech with regards to a certain goal be as essential to our ability to restore and better distinguish a verbal message as it can be devastating to people with an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia ?

    18.) Can what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce more or less suppress the ability to control covert speech and do people who more or less lose the ability to control covert speech more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response ?

    19.) Can what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce be more demanding when you get a better match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce (what you expect to hear) and bottom-up sensory signals ?

    20.) Are you more motivated to produce a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals and will the motivational state you are in when you get a better match between the sensory consequence you are about to produce and bottom-up sensory signals increase the attention you devote to all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce ?

    21.) Is it harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals and will this result in a tendency to produce the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce ?

    22.) Are several top-down sensory expectations simultaneously available when the gesture you need to use is selected and are you able to select the articulatory gesture you need to use (the one with the most equivalent sensory consequence you are able to produce) when what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (a competing task), more than what you are able to attend with any other to a lesser extent matching top-down sensory expectation, suppress the ability to control covert speech (To more or less lose the ability to control covert speech is to more or less lose the ability to inhibit a verbal response!… ) ?

    23.) Is action selection “the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals” ?

    24.) Can not bottom-up sensory signals affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies” if it is harder to inhibit a verbal response when you get a better match between a corresponding top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals (several top-down sensory expectations must simultaneously be available) ?

    25.) Are you able to integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies” and will this generate the informative event we call perception in response to a more or less distorted verbal message ?

    26.) Can the lost ability to inhibit a verbal response serve the purpose of not letting an act of will interfere with the ability to select the gestures you need to use in response to a verbal message and will the lost ability to choose how you respond result in that you find it much harder to disregard the context you are exposed to and experience ?

    27.) Are you able to use multiple sources of information, like when incongruent auditory and visual cues are used to generate the McGurk effect (a verbal illusion), because a competing task (what you are able to attend when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce) suppress the ability to choose how you respond ?

    28.) Can covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation, thanks to a tendency to produce a rather equivalent sensory consequence, be used to distinguish a verbal message while a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience makes it possible to restore a more or less distorted verbal message ?

    29.) Are stimuli to which you make the same response categorized when you hear the sensory consequence of a specific gesture in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation (what you are able to hear more subjectively will in response to different stimuli sound alike) and can a sensitivity to the context you are exposed to and experience make it possible to categorize (and learn how to categorize) what you are able to distinguish in response to acoustically highly variable speech sounds ?

    30.) Are people able to restore and better distinguish a verbal message when they lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and with a short delay hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation ?

    31.) Was Alvin M. Liberman more than 50 years ago correct in his assumption that “the articulatory movements and their sensory effects mediate between the acoustic stimulus and the event we call perception” ?

    32.) Are you able to integrate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce when bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competition between response tendencies and will this generate the informative event we call perception in all of our senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell) ?

    33.) Can the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness ?

    34.) Why am I the only one who writes about how the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message can generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore ?

    35.) Can not the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore ?

    36.) Can not any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is dinnertime or an appetizer, cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal and can not un-patterned noise that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation ?

    37.) Can not what you learn to expect in response to CS (un-patterned noise) trigger the need to access a verbal message (activate a drive representation) and can not the need to access a verbal message (information) motivate a verbal response which generates the informative event we call perception ?

    38.) Is it possible to divide what may cause conditioned reinforcer(S –> D)/incentive motivational(D –> S) learning in four categories as follows: A.) What will make it necessary to restore a verbal message. B.) What will increase the exposure to more ambiguous voices. (It´s probably more common to expect to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal sounds which originates from a distorted maybe distant voice than in response to other environmental sounds and to expect to access a verbal message can motivate a verbal response which makes it possible to interpret un-patterned noise.) C.) What may increase the need to access a verbal message. D.) What will diminish our ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence ?

    39.) Can all the factors that contribute to the development of an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia be assumed to increase the exposure to the kind of stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies you are exposed to when you are able to restore a verbal message ?

    40.) Can the need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices be assumed to trigger an integration disorder like this ?

    41.) How do you explain “the fact that the incidence of schizophrenia increases consistently with increasing levels of urbanicity” (A and B?) ?

    42.) Why are hearing impairments important risk factors for schizophrenia (A, B and C?) ?

    43.) How do you explain the fact that belonging to an ethnic minority increases the risk of developing an integration disorder like this (C?) ?

    44.) Can any difference which gives you the sense of not belonging in a social context cause an elevated risk of developing an integration disorder like this ?

    45.) Can sensory deprivation and solitude, like starvation, trigger an internal drive to access what you need and will this generate a verbal behaviour which satisfies the need to access information ?

    46.) Can sleep deprivation contribute to the development of an integration disorder referred to as schizophrenia because it diminishes the ability to focus on a specific task ?

    47.) Are people, significantely deprived of their sleep, sometimes unable to adequately monitor the production of a sensory consequence because their ability to focus on a task like this has been diminished ?

    48.) Will the ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence in competition for limited attentional resources no longer as well attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce because the ability to focus on a task like this has been diminished ?

    49.) Can all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce in competition for limited attentional resources more effectively suppress the ability to inhibit a verbal response because the ability to focus on monitoring the production of a sensory consequence has been diminished ?

    50.) Are people able to hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are unable to attenuate all features matching the sensory consequence they are about to produce (their ability to focus on monitoring the production of a sensory consequence has been diminished), lack the ability to inhibit a verbal response and hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what they were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation ?

    51.) Are you able to reveal a verbal illusion when you expect to hear the sensory consequence you are about to produce and all features matching what you expect to hear can be taken out of their peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals ?

    52.) Will the ability to reveal a verbal illusion (a mismatch) result in that you lack the motivation to execute and are able to inhibit a verbal response?

    53.) Can covert speech with its sensory consequence heard in integration with all features matching a corresponding top-down sensory expectation be blocked in the middle of a sentence because an increase in attention take all features matching what you expect to hear out of their peripheral existence without generating a match between a top-down sensory expectation and bottom-up sensory signals ?

    54.) Can the sensory consequence you are about to produce during covert speech take on the value of what you are able to reveal as irrelevant and how can this be assumed to affect the emotional state of people who frequently reveals a verbal illusion instead of hearing their own thoughts as alien voices ?

    55.) Can a tendency to reveal a verbal illusion be generated because you are trying really hard to hear the voice you are about to produce or because you are trying to avoid the voice you are about to produce by paying more attention to all features matching the voice you are about to produce (It is much harder to hear the voices you are trying to hear and I am able to use this to get rid of some of the voices I hear!) ?

    56.) Will some people who learn to avoid their voices by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively eventually automatically pay more attention to all features matching whatever voice they are about to produce and can this be assumed to generate more negative symptoms in people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid ?

    57.) Am I the only one who writes about how the ability to reveal a mismatch can generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition?

    58.) Can not negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition be connected to our ability to reveal a mismatch ?

    59.) Can the information you access in response to what you are able to hear more objectively act as a positive reinforcer and will the ability to reveal a verbal illusion during circumstances like these sometimes result in that un-patterned noise loses its power to motivate a behaviour which generates the informative event we call perception (Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!) ?

    60.) Is it possible to understand how some people get rid of the voices they hear?

    61.) Will some people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear eventually lose their ability to hear these voices because they pay more attention to what they hear objectively (bottom-up sensory signals) and as a consequence more frequently are able to reveal a verbal illusion?

    62.) Is it possible to affect what kind of voices people hear and by doing this help them to get rid of this illness ?

    63.) Can verbal auditory hallucinations emerge as the result of stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message while positive symptoms in all of our other senses (visual hallucinations etc) emerge due to a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (un-patterned noise) ?

    64.) Can a failure to block a neutral stimulus in compound with CS (attentional blocking) be the result of our ability to reveal a mismatch ?

    65.) Can our ability to reveal a verbal illusion briefly switch our attention to a neutral event in one of our other senses and will a neutral event like this if it consistently precedes a reinforcer (the informative event we call perception) itself become a reinforcer?

    66.) Can the ability to hear whatever you expect to hear in response to the context you are exposed to and experience gradually change the context you experience to a more subjective context ?

    67.) Can the lost ability to discriminate relevant stimuli from irrelevant stimuli originate from our ability to restore a verbal message (Our ability to restore a verbal message rely on an ability to interpret irrelevant stimuli when we expect to access a verbal message and to frequently restore a verbal message may generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore) ?

    68.) Do people naturally focus more on monitoring the production of a sensory consequence when it is the sensory consequence they produce overtly and can this be assumed to explain why people who constantly loses their ability to control covert speech often find it much easier to control overt speech?

    69.) Are the frequently occurring loose associations I experience a characterizing feature of this illness which reflects how bottom-up sensory signals can affect “the outcome of competition between response tendencies in the context of prefrontal biasing signals that represent drives and strivings for goals”?

    70.) Why is polydipsia (excessive fluid intake) associated with negative symptoms, disorganization and poor outcome ?

    71.) Will some people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices develop polydipsia because an operant behaviour like alien covert speech is rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information (A hungry animal with access to water may if an operant behaviour is rewarded with food, but in too small amounts to satisfy its hunger, eventually develop polydipsia)?

    72.) Is an operant behaviour like alien covert speech sometimes rewarded with information without entirely satisfying the need to access information because you are able to reveal a verbal illusion (to listen because you experience the need to access a verbal message may result in that you are able to reveal a verbal illusion and it is much harder to hear the voices you are trying to hear) or because bottom-up sensory signals affect the outcome of competion between response tendencies (How informative is a loose association?) ?

  15. Stefan Andersson

    I have tried to understand how I am able to hear my own thoughts as alien voices and why I started to hear these voices.

    These are some of the questions I ask myself:

    What can we learn from people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices and in response to non-verbal environmental sounds are able to generate the perception of an external voice “that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal”?

    What if each and every one of us are able to use covert speech to generate the perception of an external voice “that retain certain acoustic features that were present in the original signal” when we need to restore and better distinguish a verbal message?

    Can the gestures you are about to produce during covert speech when you are able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech like the gestures you intend to produce during overt speech determine what you expect to hear and can a top-down sensory expectation like this be used to select all features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce?

    Are you able to hear the sensory consequence of covert speech in integration with what you were able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

    How are people able to hear their own thoughts out loud in response to un-patterned noise of a very low volume (what normally is unattended and below awareness)?

    Is Treisman´s attenuation model correct in its claim that “paying attention to a message means increasing its subjective loudness”?

    Can a previous exposure to a tone enable the perception of the same tone at a lower volume than otherwise would have been possible (Hemisfärernas musik, s.53, Jan Fagius) because you expect to hear the tone you were exposed to and are able to use what you expect to hear to select (pay attention to) all features matching the tone you were exposed to?

    Can excessive attentional focus on all features matching a top-down sensory expectation substantially increase the subjective loudness of what you are able to select (peripheral features not otherwise brought to awareness) when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce and will the subjective loudness of what you are able to select determine the subjective loudness of the voice you are about to produce?

    Is it harder to reveal a verbal illusion in response to un-patterned noise below a certain threshold and will this sometimes result in a tendency to interpret environmental or tinnitus-like sounds of a very low volume?

    Why do people lose the ability to generate an act of will with which they are able to consciously control covert speech?

    Is one of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations correct in its claim that “a failure to adequately monitor the production of one’s own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice”?

    Are people who hear their own thoughts as alien voices forced to divide their attention between their ability to predictively monitor the production of a sensory consequence and what they are able to select with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation?

    Do people more easily lose the ability to control covert speech and hear their own thoughts as alien voices because they are forced to divide their attention between two similar tasks?

    Why am I the only one who uses a well known experience many people share (two similar tasks will often interfere with each other more than two different tasks) in an attempt to make it easier to understand the lack of voluntary control?

    Will not what you are able to select, when you are trying to hear the voice you are about to produce, automatically correspond to some features matching the sensory consequence you are about to produce and can not the attention you devote to a competing task due to a similarity more effectively suppress the ability to control how you respond?

    Why am I the only one who writes about how the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message can generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore?

    Can not the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore?

    Can not any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is dinnertime or an appetizer, cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal and can not un-patterned noise that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation ?

    Can not what you learn to expect in response to CS (un-patterned noise) trigger the need to access a verbal message (activate a drive representation) and can not the need to access a verbal message (information) motivate a verbal response which generates the informative event we call perception ?

    Can the need to restore a verbal message in a noisy environment, due to a hearing impairment or when volition and emotion make you listen to indistinct, maybe distant and hard to hear voices be assumed generate a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore?

  16. taotiger

    Research Suggestions / Random Insights

    1. That total ambient sound (internal [ie. breathing, heartbeat, brain activity] and external [ie. traffic, birdsong, refrigerator]) may *cause* thought. specifically, ambient sound not consciously attended to may form a dissociated complex of thought system developing unawares, until breaking through into conscious thought-stream, in a similar way that we may unexpectedly hear the external counterpart of a highway we have been living close to for years, and never noticed, which then becomes a significant part of our consciously attended to soundscape.

    2a. That a *type* of thinking (manner, archetypal substructure) we had once engaged in becomes no longer engaged in, yet retains the energic weight of an archetypal resonance which quietly, unheard, influences our dominant inner voicings, until an ego-weakening (in the Jungian sense of ego, not Freudian) experience (bolstering ‘Shadow’ component, or strengthening bond between Shadow and Anima) causes a dissolution of the dominant-(ego)-archetype integrity such that secondary and/or partly dissociated personality fragments erupt with close to (and sometimes greater than) equivalent intensity.

    2b. That incidence of voice hearing within the (admittedly small) population where discontinued intensive Mantra recitation practice forms part of the history, may yield support for this thesis.

    3a. That the development of complex language structure “voice-heard” may be studied (as in my case, for example, where over two years a clearly mappable growth pattern can be seen, with faithful recollection of oft repeated voicings traceable longitudinally and amenable to dissection as a growing system), and linguistic analysis of this development possible, resultant patterns which may be found to approximate the course of development of physiological virus forms.

    3b. That is seems distinctly plausible such virus-like formations of a spreading/growing language system, particularly those developing with malignant identity/affect/tone, may be influential upon the human physical system (and vice versa), and whether or not they have broken forth into consciousness, such malignancy is conceivably implicated in the disease progression of other organic disturbance, notably similar to the insidious spreading of cancer.

    3c. That graphic computational modelling of such language systems over the early period of lexicon expansion is feasible, with emphasis upon a mapping convention charting the linguistic network pattern and, analysing even relatively few individuals who have significant recall, examining for similarities in three and two dimensional developmental topography of structural change and growth, which may lead to a model of interaction between various voices, between voices and basal language structure, though of primary interest for ease of early research would be simple geometric structures discernable within the early stages of language patterning (that is, connections between prominant words used by the voices), with attendant possibility of early intervention by the introduction of linguistic “anti-viral” agents (akin to remedial Mantras) which disrupt the voices in preliminary growth phase.

    4. That psychiatric interventions when used without supporting talk-therapy or equivalent “alternative” modes of addressing the underlying (apparant) components of the voices themselves, personal history, social structure the hearer is embedded in, archetypal array, meridian flow/blockage… without addressing the substance of the condition being treated phenomonologically, whatever the theoretical and treatment process preferred as remedying the intrapersonal conflict, is merely “a bandaid solution to an internal injury” and superficial approach, unlikely to yield long term relief and independence, but rather leverages bioreductionist prejudice in favour of subduing the hearer in a way that could be considered “globally disabling” wheras many “complementary” treatment protocols address the condition with great precision and subtlety, and should be rigourously pursued prior to, and at least in conjunction with, psychiatric procedures. Hence a thorough and exhaustive investigation of practices worldwide from throughout the ages must be undertaken for the sake of many suffering with malignant and/or disruptive voices, and hearers be given full and accurate information at the point of contact with psychiatric services, such that they may exert a choice over which treatments aside from psychiatry will be entered into to solve the uncomfortable dilemma, even if that involves choosing to live with voices and accomodate them into daily living rather than submit to drug treatments that many do and would consider, if they were able to truly exercise “informed consent”, worse to live with than the experience of hearing voices.

    5. That there may be an overdiagnosis of “schizophrenia” based upon a sensationalising of the voice hearing phenomenon, and other aspects of the hearer’s life misread to appear part of this syndrome, such as merely radical or artistic dress construed as “poor hygeine”, or that preference for one’s own company may be read into the diagnosis as “social dysfunction”, even “self-employment” in one of the countless ways that retired people have the benefit of pursuing with impunity may be regarded if engaged in by a younger person as “occupational maladjustment”. These conclusions may be reached by general practitioners and psychiatrists alike when confronted by the voice hearing phenomena, for many reasons including the dominance of the trend of considering voice hearing to be (inaccurately) adequate symptomatically for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, with attendent fuzzy reasoning to “fill in the diagnostic blanks”, or because the clinician is not familiar with a growing culture of acceptance in the wider community regarding the ways in which many people live quite happily with voices, receiving non-medical treatments if any treatments at all, or because the person in question may be a genuinely passionate and/or politically radical individual with vivid imaginal life, of the “type” considered by the average conservative-ish doctor as being in need of some quietening therapy as part of the doctor’s self-assessed social/community obligation.

    6. That the simple Zen/Ch’an practice of “breath attention” may yield surprisingly effective results when enacted by a voice hearer as a standalone technique of addressing the stress, anxiety and fatigue that can accompany voice hearing, and may be a treatment that, couched in non-religious terms without even mention of the word “meditation”, is calming and easy for anyone with minimal guidance and without supervision, enabling the presence of mind necessary to work out the intrapersonal problem for themselves, or with only minimum and non-invasive therapeutic intervention.

    7. That when it comes to doctoring via physiological medicine, the cochlear feedback mechanism by which the auditory cortex send signals from the olivary body via the medial olivocochlear bundle to amplify internal sounds (similar to tinnitus) might be a place to look for dysfunction first, before considering the dopamine/seratonin system.

    8. That it may be worthwhile therapeutically, to learn about the character of the voices heard and to develop a typology of their personalities as (semi-autonomous) beings, examining and collating information on these entities, in a similar way to diagnostic manuals elucidating (supposed) “types” of people who are not functioning in ways that are happy/content or without causing themselves or others suffering, to develop a complex profile of the types of “people” who people hearing voices have trouble with, in the forms of inner archetypal manifestations of apparant personness. Thus, we may begin to match the temperaments of actual people in a person’s life who may leave traces of resonance which are activated as pesky and/or persistent voices, with a view to assisting in developing strategies of the sort used if such characters were harrassing them in external/”real” form, and applying these coping tactics of interaction both with the internal figures and with external figures who may be found to act as “surrogate” and tangible characters with whom conflicts may be addressed and resolved.

  17. Stefan Andersson

    Is it possible to affect the voice hearing experience in those who predominantly hear voices expressed with a negative emotional content?

    Can the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) when you with a short delay are able to restore a verbal message or interpret what subjectively seems to be a verbal message contribute to a tendency to interpret what people normally ignore?

    To reward an operant behavior (covert speech) which generates the exposure to stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies (classical conditioning) like these may have such a profound effect that some people develop a mental illness…

    Classical conditioning (also referred to as pavlovian or respondent conditioning) can be the result of stimulus (non-verbal) – stimulus (verbal) contingencies like these and may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds while operant conditioning is the result of response – stimulus contingencies and what generates our ability to satisfy the need to access a verbal message. In other words to frequently be forced to restore a verbal message due to a hearing loss may cause the need to access a verbal message in response to non-verbal environmental sounds (1) and the need to access what you learn to expect can motivate a behaviour which satisfies the need to access a verbal message (2). (Hearing impairments are, as expected, important risk factors for schizophrenia…)

    1.) Any signal that consistently precedes a meal, such as a clock indicating that it is time for dinner or an appetizer, may cause us to feel hungrier than before the signal because we learn to expect a meal in response to CS (CS will eventually predict the arrival of food) and non-verbal environmental sounds that consistently precedes a verbal illusion (information) can like any signal that consistently precedes a meal become a conditioned reinforcer that can activate a drive representation D.

    2.) Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which an individual’s behaviour is modified by its consequences and it involves learning to make a response in order to obtain a reward or avoid something unpleasant. What you learn to expect or predict in response to a signal that consistently precedes a reinforcer can motivate an operant behaviour which has been established and fine tuned because it satisfies the need to access what you learn to expect or makes it possible to avoid what you learn to expect.

    People who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to hear may eventually lose their ability to hear these voices because they are able to reveal a verbal illusion (1) while some people who mostly hear the kind of voices they want to avoid learn to sometimes avoid the kind of voices they hear by paying more attention to what they are able to hear objectively (2) …

    1.) Extinction: The occurrences of a conditioned response will eventually decrease or disappear when a conditioned reinforcer (un-patterned noise) no longer is paired with a primary reinforcer (information)!

    2.) People who consistently avoid the event they fear will continue to expect a fearfull event (phobia) and people who selectively are able to avoid some of the voices they hear by revealing a mismatch will continue to expect to hear the voices they were able to avoid! To continue to expect to hear the voices you are able to avoid by revealing a verbal illusion may eventually generate negative symptoms like poverty of speech, affective flattening and avolition and to continue to expect to hear the voices you are trying to avoid will generate the voices you are trying to avoid whenever you are unable to reveal a verbal illusion. The allocation of processing resources from what generates the ability to consciously control covert speech to what you are able to attend with a corresponding top-down sensory expectation must be greater when you are trying to avoid a voice with a negative emotional content than when you are trying to restore a verbal message or interpret non-verbal environmental or tinnitus like sounds with no connection to a verbal message (not coexisting with or corresponding to a distorted verbal message) and avoidance may therefore also generate a more disorganized behavior.

    “Non-clinical populations usually experience voices with a neutral or even positive emotional content” and to selectively be able to avoid some voices expressed with a negative emotional content may eventually generate a more unpleasant voice hearing experience, disorganization and negative symptoms.

    An already stigmatized experience can be connected to some of what characterize an even more stigmatized illness, but most people who hear auditory hallucinations do not meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia!

  18. susan bevis

    My younger daughter was severely bullied both physically and mentally and could hear voices. She was diagnosed as having Schizophrenia and given Rispiridal as a child. She has made a full recovery but even on 1mg withdrawal was difficult. She complained of feeling worse than ever on the drugs and they made her balloon in weight. Her love of acting was the cure, not drugs and she is now on top of the world, having graduated from university and having been to performing arts schools.

    My elder daughter is currently on Section 3 and worse than ever having been experimented on with 14 mind altering drugs and is now classed as being chronic treatment resistant. She was sent to the horrific Bethlem Royal Hospital and I had no idea this was a research hospital where they force/trick patients to take drugs against their wishes. She was promised a drug free period of assessment by Prof Murray who turned his back. She has now been sent miles away from home and family and was denied contact up until now. I believe the threat of court or else the fact they have a different psychiatrist made the difference here. I was given supervised phone calls at a slot I could not phone and escorted leave only. This was the treatment from Cambian Four Star Wards where she currently is.

    Another case of trauma – something bad happened but worse was to come -hospitalisation – insufficient care – drug pushing left right and centre which even social services got involved in trying to push Clozapine. I document the care in my website and have been campaigning for proper assessments. My elder daughter did not hear any voices before being put on all these drugs – she has been used as a human guinea pig for research purposes by the Bethlem and other psychiatrists.

    Now I want a proper assessment – with 5 different diagnoses and I do not believe them I am requesting an assessment through Dr William Walsh. He has done extensive research and discovered 5 bio types of depression – it is possible that my daughter could be in the category where the drugs are not working at all. My point is that if the drugs are not working then my daughter needs to be safely reduced off them. The drugs work for people who are undermethylated and Dr Walsh had identified everything backed by research in his book Nutrient Power. Dr Ann Blake Tracy documents the correct way in reductions of drugs and now I want everything done properly and have got written advice and cds. the Bethlem ignored this advice and took her off 150mg and mixed one drug with another. They caused the psychosis – why should my daughter be sectioned through the incompetence of what they have done. I now want a full enquiry at Government level. I would like to see Chy Sawel, Soteria and Root and Branch set up as the care is not suitable if this is all about drugs as it would appear and the Government needs to address the state of care in the community which does not work for everyone.

  19. Erin Evans

    I just heard Eleanor Longden on Ted Talks. Her story is almost exactly what happened to me. For me, it started with insomnia –years, and months full of days of insomnia. Mine were never evil, or threatening. They even told me of future events. I know that sounds crazy, but think about current theories on the physics of time (i.e., time doesn’t exist. Past, present and future already exist, what we believe to be time is our consciousness making sense of it), and that if we are indeed universally linked to the cosmos, endless beings as so many believe us to be, it makes sense that we can know the future. My voices annoyingly informed me of the most useless future events, told me where to go to find anything I was looking for, even in places I’d never been. They showed me their superiority, compelling me to listen. I’m fine now, but I am sleeping with medication (Thank you to my psychiatrist), and only after I told the voices in no uncertain terms to GO AWAY. It took time, because they were compelling. So, I believe they were there partly because I wanted to “know.” So, turning away from them was probably something like kicking an addiction. But, however compelling, they had become such a distraction, making a productive life endlessly difficult, and I was so completely exhausted, I had no choice. It was them or suicide. I believe that as has been said, “Our conscious minds are only the tip of the iceberg. What we are unaware of is huge by comparison.” Bravo to you for bringing this out into the open. We aren’t nuts. Our minds are simply more than we ever imagined.

  20. Reza Mahani

    Has anyone suggested/worked on a Normalcy Hypothesis: Hearing voices is essentially the normal thought process that is made audible. In other words, is there a clear distinction between what we call normal thought processes and that of a person who hear voices?

    In any case, I have gotten a lot of insights from reading the material here, even though I am not strictly in the category of people who hear voices. What’s most fascinating to me is that it clearly shows how complex and multi-channel is our thought processes, as if we all have multiple personalities inside us.

    Here, I am reminded of the psychoanalysis literature and wondering if there is research done on the subject based on psychoanalysis.

    Anyway, this work is amazing and very exciting to me. I wish I could engage more in the research!

  21. Claire

    I am a second year post-graduate diploma student, studying and practicing humanistic psychotherapeutic counselling. I am in the early stages of designing a qualitative research proposal which will ask something like: “what do trainee counsellors’ think/feel about working with voice hearers”? I would very much welcome peoples’ thoughts/ input/ suggestions.
    Thank you.

    1. Gisele Robert

      Hi! You have posted your message on sept 26 of this year. If you look back at the message just behind yours, it is dated august 17 2013. This means that nearly nobody does visit this area (ideas for research) of the site. Will you check this area to see if someone has made a suggestion, submitted input or thoughts soon after? I’d like to help you and share my experiences with you. So, if we keep in touch for sharing ideas, I propose you to give a bit of more details of what would be your research proposal. Then, I’ll see if you read me. And if so, I might engage in submitting my ideas for your research proposal. Until then, have a very good time!

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